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关闭煤炭矿区资源利用与可持续发展的几点思考

王家臣 JürgenKretschmann 李杨

王家臣, JürgenKretschmann, 李杨. 关闭煤炭矿区资源利用与可持续发展的几点思考[J]. 矿业科学学报, 2021, 6(6): 633-641. doi: 10.19606/j.cnki.jmst.2021.06.001
引用本文: 王家臣, JürgenKretschmann, 李杨. 关闭煤炭矿区资源利用与可持续发展的几点思考[J]. 矿业科学学报, 2021, 6(6): 633-641. doi: 10.19606/j.cnki.jmst.2021.06.001
Wang Jiachen, Jürgen Kretschmann, Li Yang. Reflections on resource utilization and sustainable development of closed coal mining areas[J]. Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 2021, 6(6): 633-641. doi: 10.19606/j.cnki.jmst.2021.06.001
Citation: Wang Jiachen, Jürgen Kretschmann, Li Yang. Reflections on resource utilization and sustainable development of closed coal mining areas[J]. Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 2021, 6(6): 633-641. doi: 10.19606/j.cnki.jmst.2021.06.001

关闭煤炭矿区资源利用与可持续发展的几点思考

doi: 10.19606/j.cnki.jmst.2021.06.001
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金重点项目 51934008

国家自然科学基金 52074293

河北省自然科学基金 E2020402041

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王家臣(1963—),男,黑龙江方正人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事厚煤层开采、岩层控制及露天矿边坡等方面的教学与科研工作。Tel:010-62339061,E-mail:wangjiachen@vip.sina.com

  • 中图分类号: TD82

Reflections on resource utilization and sustainable development of closed coal mining areas

  • 摘要: 随着中国能源结构的调整,煤炭开采从原来的分散式开采向精细化、集中化和精准化发展,矿井数量大幅度减少,大量资源枯竭及落后产能矿井面临关闭或废弃。这一转变将使中国现阶段及未来很长一段时间都将面临与德国相似的"后采矿"时代。从中国能源结构发展的大趋势以及煤炭资源开发的宏观战略来看,已经关闭和即将关闭的大量矿井或者矿区重新恢复开采的可能性不大。矿井的关闭或废弃不仅会带来水、大气等环境污染问题,还会带来企业职工难以安置、固定资产难以处理等社会经济问题。因此,本文针对矿区关闭或废弃后出现的问题,借鉴德国应对后采矿的处理方案、后采矿工业区资源可持续发展战略,对比中国对关闭矿区的处理案例,提出了应把矿区关闭后资源的利用纳入整个矿山开发的顶层设计中的理念,以及煤炭地下空间、矿井水等资源综合利用的思路。国内外虽提出了形式多样的废弃矿井利用方案,但总体利用率不高,仍需继续深入探究关闭矿区资源利用基础理论和手段方法,以及应对关闭矿区后发展需要的教育与技术人才培养措施。
  • 图  1  鲁尔河地区北部希思·基希勒·海德荒地湿地

    Figure  1.  Wetland of Heath Kirschler Hyde Wasteland in the northern Ruhr Region

    图  2  德国埃森Zollverein煤矿Ⅻ竖井井架工业遗产

    Figure  2.  Industrial heritage of shaft headframe Ⅻ of Zollverein Coal Mine in Essen, Germany

    图  3  鲁尔地区总体失业率与矿业劳动力的比较

    Figure  3.  Comparison of overall unemployment rate and mining labor force in Ruhr district

    图  4  煤矿开采地下空间可利用量

    Figure  4.  Available quantity of underground space in coal mining

    图  5  关闭矿区资源利用埋深分布

    Figure  5.  Distribution of buried depth of resource utilization in closed mining area

    表  1  南湖城市中央生态公园用地划分

    Table  1.   Land division of Nanhu City Central Ecological Park  hm2

    项目 面积 项目 面积
    市民广场 50.5 文化娱乐 21
    植物园 32.5 城市滨水绿地 20
    公共水域 93.5 酒店会议 22
    休闲娱乐 8.8 生态隔离缓冲 95.8
    湿地保存区 142.8 生态净化水域 106.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  京西煤矿转型计划

    Table  2.   Transformation plan of Jingxi coal mine

    序号 地点 功能划分
    1 千军台木城涧     矿区标高+250~+1050 m,两个矿区相距相邻,可联合开发,其地下空间相对较大的区域可用于建设井下实习基地、文化休闲、游乐场、博物馆、地下探险等
    2 长沟峪     矿区中密封性较好的巷道可用于建设地下水库、储能电站等
    3 大安山     矿区标高+600~+850 m,可接续千军台矿井用于建设地下房地产扩展区、地下废物储存、战略物资储备等
    4 大台     矿区-10 m水平与木城涧矿井相连,埋深较浅,可用于建设科学研究实验基地、博物馆、地下医院等
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-25
  • 修回日期:  2021-06-01
  • 刊出日期:  2021-12-01

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